Ellen Cardona

Pound's Anti-Semitism at St. Elizabeths: 1945-1958

      Pound entered St. Elizabeths [sic] Hospital on December 1945 as a man with the belief that the Jews were involved in a conspiracy. His hatred of usury, which he connected to the Jews, remained with him in St. Elizabeths. Pound blamed what he called the Kahal rather than all Jews for usury and emphasized repeatedly in the correspondence that was written during his confinement that Jews should be judged on an individual basis. The article examines Pound's anti-Semitism during the years 1945-1958 through the correspondence housed at the Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center (HRC) at the University of Texas at Austin. Also, new material that was recently donated by Pound's son Omar to his and his father's alma mater, Hamilton College, located in Clinton, New York, is also considered in terms of Pound's anti-Semitism. Drawing upon critical arguments and correspondence from the Harry Ransom Center, the first part of the article focuses on the issue of Pound's sanity during his confinement at St. Elizabeths. The second part of the article utilizes the new material at Hamilton College along with the material at the Harry Ransom Center. The last section of the article discusses Pound's anti-Semitism using the correspondence from the Harry Ransom Center. By the time of Pound's release in 1958, he still remained an anti-Semite who believed in a Jewish conspiracy.

      When one discusses Pound's time at St. Elizabeths, the issue of his sanity or insanity cannot be avoided. Two works by Wendy Flory maintain that Pound was struck by a delusion involving a Jewish conspiracy, and it was this delusion that made him unstable. Flory explains why there is a difference in syntax when Pound writes about a topic such as literature as opposed to when he writes about politics or economics: "Throughout Pound's years in St. Elizabeths, political or economic topics invariably precipitated a psychotic response. Yet on any other topics, such as literary matters, Pound was able to be logical and reasonable and often to show an energetic enthusiasm. A change of topic would cause an instantaneous switch into or out of a psychotic mood in a way that has been noted by many people, from his daughter, describing how her father was at the time of the broadcasts, to his visitors during the St. Elizabeths years" (Flory "Pound and anti-Semitism" 291). Flory makes the same type of argument in her work, The American Ezra Pound: "And yet he was able to an unusual degree to confine his psychotic thinking to the one topic around which it had grown up in the first place" (162). This one topic involves a banker's conspiracy, and Flory notes that on any other topic, Pound's writing was "entirely lucid and reasonable"(The American Ezra Pound 162). From my examination of the correspondence from Harry Ransom Center, I believe that Flory is correct. From the correspondence, Pound's train of thought when he writes about other topics other than Jewish conspiracy is well written and, at times, quite humorous. For example, when Pound recommends what books to read, his writing does not contain anti-Semitism, but is clear. In a letter dated October 25, 1957 to Noel Stock, Pound writes an excerpt about literary works for Noel Stock's Edge; Pound lists specific books that students should read, such as the Iliad and the Odyssey: "These two books are at the basis of Greek wisdom, formulated abstractly 400 years later by Aristotle and Plato. They have been a major determinant of western civilization." In the piece for the Edge, Pound also recommends Dante's Divine Comedy: "The Comedy is a difficult work to get at, but when you do, it will give you a large part of the little wisdom that man has acquired." In the same excerpt, Pound writes about Shakespeare, "Get an edition you can read without a microscope and can carry." Pound then continues: "Remember you are much better educated than Shakespeare's audience and they understood him without any college profs." In the same article, Pound also includes Joyce, Eliot, and himself: "All modern, all difficult. The advantage is that you aren't likely to think you understand them, when you don't." Pound also gives this advice for students: "Remember that Pound is set against talking like a professor ('gravity, a mysterious carriage of the body to conceal the defects of the mind'). Each sentence is an idea and its importance you will discover slowly. Pound makes no attempts to spin a single idea out into an impressive book. But you have been taught to read that way. The adjustment will be harder than it sounds." In Noel Stock's The Life of Ezra Pound, Stock, who was also editor of The New Times and the Edge, observes that the phrasing in the correspondence he received from Pound "was often more condensed, as if composed under greater pressure; it was also more fragmentary"(444). What Pound was writing about for The New Times and the Edge was often political and economic in nature. It was these topics that brought forth his anger and frustration. Pound was writing under great frustration due to the fact that he believed that his audience had ignored his lessons; his ranting, which was usually comprised of anti-Semitic remarks, resulted from this frustration. Pound believed that he had the means to solve economic problems, but no one would listen to him, and his message was ignored. He did attempt to educate his audience through his radio speeches, and he landed in an insane asylum.

      Kay Redfield Jamison, in her article, "Manic-Depressive Illness and Creativity," lists several artists, including Pound, whom she believes suffered from this disease. In the article, she writes, "Judging by current diagnostic criteria, it seems that most of these artists-and many others-besides suffered from one of the major mood disorders, namely, manic-depressive illness or major depression" (63). Jamison notes that "[m]ajor depression in both unipolar and bipolar disorders manifest itself through apathy, lethargy, hopelessness, sleep disturbances . . . impaired memory and concentration, and a loss of pleasure in typically enjoyable events" (64). Pound exhibited some of this behavior at St. Elizabeths. Flory cites several examples from psychiatrists' reports that indicate Pound's fatigue. In a report dated March 31, 1946, Flory cites the following remarks from a psychiatrist, who interviewed Pound: "'When he is questioned about his earlier poetic works his memory appears perfectly intact as he expatiates at length on this and on other neutral subjects. But when queried about his scurrilous and anti-semitic broadcasts in Italy he protests that his memory fails him. On one occasion when he was asked if he wishes to stand trial, he effected an elaborate caricature of fatigue, and the interview had to be terminated'" (The American Ezra Pound, 169). Flory notes that in Pound's file at St. Elizabeths, there was an observation, dated June 27, 1947, that said that Pound exhibited so much fatigue on the ward that the attendants described him as having a sleeping sickness (The American Ezra Pound, 169). Flory also cites a report dated October 19, 1947: "He [Pound] is utterly fatigued by interviews and it just takes him about three months to recuperate from such torture when another interview comes" (The American Ezra Pound, 160). Also, in a letter dated May 4, 1948, to Olga Rudge from Samuel A. Silk, M.D., Assistant Superintendent of St. Elizabeths, Silk writes: "As you have noted it is Mr. Pound's mental quirk to not face any facts which are not in conformity with his preconceived beliefs. Because of Mr. Pound's intelligence, he is very cleverly able to distort reality to suit his purpose." Silk also writes: "He constantly complains of great fatigue and weakness and is unable to sit erect for more than brief periods of time when being interviewed by the physicians. Fortunately, this fatigability is much less evidenced when he is working on his manuscripts in his room alone."

      In Jamison's article, she also describes the opposite side of depression: mania. She writes: "Their [those afflicted with manic-depression] mood and self-esteem are elevated. They sleep less and have abundant energy; their productivity increased. Manics become frequently irritable and paranoid. Moreover, their speech is often rapid, excitable and intrusive, and their thoughts move quickly and fluidly from one topic to another. They usually hold tremendous conviction about the correctness and importance of their ideas as well" (65). Pound also exhibited this type of behavior at St. Elizabeths, though his words were more toned-down than what appeared in the radio speeches. In a letter to Stock, Pound writes: "In fact have sd/ for 4 decades that the world wd be brighter if more people wd/ read E.P. but have never had faintest idea on how to purrsuade 'em to do so" (November 7, 1954). Apparently, Dr. Overholser also said that Pound had "delusions of grandeur," according to E. Fuller Torrey's The Roots Of Treason: Ezra Pound and the Secrets of St. Elizabeths. Torrey cites the following remark that Dr. Overholser's wrote in his report dated February 7, 1946: "As examples the psychiatrist cited Pound's beliefs that he could have prevented war if people had listened to him, that he claimed to 'have connections in a half dozen countries and nerve centers of intellect,' and that 'he should have been brought to this country not as a prisoner but as an advisor to the State Department in dealing with Japan and, indeed, the rest of the world'" (202). Torrey writes that Dr. Overholser was the only psychiatrist who noted in Pound "definite delusions of grandeur and persecution" (202).

      In her article, Jamison lists "productivity increase" as a symptom of mania. Pound's correspondence at HRC is voluminous for this period. In fact, in a letter to Ingrid Davies, with whom Pound shared a relationship of teacher and pupil, Pound makes the following comments about his outgoing mail:

it is only OUT going mail that has to be inspected in office/
                        OR clandestine, via D.P. to save the office the awful labour, let alone mental effort at tax payers' expense that wd/ be expense that wd/ be entailed by their trying to understand my correspondence (March 18, 1955).
True, it would take quite an effort for the staff to examine Pound's mail, since he corresponded, according to the letters at the HRC, with at least thirty individuals. Pound was also productive in his publishing during his confinement at St. Elizabeths. Regarding new material, Pound's Confucius: The Unwobbling Pivot & The Great Digest, was published by New Directions in 1947 (Gallup 74, A58). The Pisan Cantos was published in 1948 also by New Directions (Gallup 76, A69). The Classic Anthology Defined by Confucius was first published in1954 by Harvard University Press (Gallup 90, A69). Also, Section: Rock Drill, Cantos 85-95 de los cantares was published in 1955 in Milano by Vanni Scheiwiller, and the first American version was published in 1956 by New Directions (Gallup 92, A70a and b). Sophokles: Women of Trachis was first published in 1956 in London by Neville Spearman, and the first American version was published in 1957 by New Directions (Gallup 94, A72a and b).

      According to Gallup's Bibliography, Pound contributed to about twenty-eight journals during his time at St. Elizabeths. Some of the journals published material that was previously written by him. For example, in 1946, a section from Guide to Kulchur was published in Nine (Gallup 334, C1719). Gallup cites three other contributions from Pound in the journal Nine: two contributions are lines of doggerel in 1953 and in 1956, and the other contribution is a piece on "On categories of literature" in 1952 (336 and 342, C1732, C1813, and C1737). In 1950, Pound's previous printed material appeared in Mood: a reprint of Introductory Text Book (1939) in the May 1950 edition and a collection of Pound's essays in the September 1950 edition (Gallup 335, C1724 and C1726). In the September 1950 issue of Four Pages published a piece on the "right to property and the right to produce," which was published in 1937 (Gallup 335, C1727). Gallup notes that there is one other contribution to Four Pages: "Slow Motion," published in 1951 (335, C1731a). In 1955, the journal Current ran an excerpt from Jefferson and/or Mussolini (Gallup 339, C1781b).

      Also, there were several journals that first printed Pound's cantos and translations before they were collected in a book. For example, several cantos of what would be The Pisan Cantos first appeared in various journals: in 1946, "Canto LXXXIV" appeared in the Quarterly Review of Literature; "Canto LXXVII" was published in Rocky Mountain Review; and "Canto LXXX" was published in Poetry (Gallup 333, C1705-C1707). In 1947, "Canto LXXXIII" was published in Yale Poetry Review and "Canto LXXVI" was published in the Sewanee Review (Gallup 333, C1709-1710). In 1950, Pound contributed two articles, entitled "The Analects [of Confucius]" in the Spring and Summer issues of the Hudson Review; these translations were published as Confucian Analects in 1951 by the Square $ Series, with permission from the Hudson Review (Gallup 334-335, C1720, C1725, and A65a). In 1954, Pound's translation of Sophokles' Women of Trachis appeared in the Hudson Review (Gallup 336, C1738). And the same journals also published "Canto 85" in 1954 and in 1955, "Canto 86-87" and "Canto 88-89" (Gallup 336-337, C1741, C1743, and C1746).

      Four significant journals contained most of Pound's new material. For example, according to Gallup's Bibliography, there were fifty-three entries from June 1955 through March 1956 for the journal Strike. Pound actually helped establish Strike, "which was edited in Washington by another of Pound's visitor, William McNaughton" (Stock 425). The articles in Strike concern political and economic topics and are not signed by Pound; Pound did not use a pseudonym, except in one piece, which is from a Michigan correspondent (Gallup 338, C1764). Two other journals, The New Times and Edge, which were both published by Noel Stock, contain most of the articles that Pound wrote during his time at St. Elizabeths. According to Gallup, Pound contributed forty-nine entries for The New Times from November 1954 through February 1957 and twenty-seven entries for Edge from October 1956 through October 1957. For both journals, Pound did not sign his name or used pseudonyms, and most of the topics were on politics and economics. The final journal that holds a number of Pound's contributions is Voice; Pound's contributed seventeen entries, which ran from March 1956 through January 1957. Likewise, he also used pseudonyms, and the topics for Voice were based on politics and economics.

      The correspondence at HRC is very telling of what Pound worked on during the twelve and half years at St. Elizabeths, and this type of output seems enormous for one individual. Jamison's assertion that Pound, as well as other artists, suffered from manic depression does seem therefore to have validity, especially concerning the amount of correspondence and articles that Pound wrote during his years at St. Elizabeths. However, if one looks at Pound's amount of production in publication alone, such as the articles that he wrote from the 1920s until his time at St. Elizabeths, this type of output seems "normal," at least for Pound.

      The correspondence with Peter Russell, editor of NINE, is an example of how Pound contributed to these journals. These letters, which date from 1951 through 1952, are not as detailed as his correspondence to Dallam Simpson and Noel Stock, but the letters to Russell show that Pound contributed advice and some excerpts of published material from Guide to Kuchur and the ABC of Economics. The contents of NINE focused on economics; Pound told Russell to concentrate not on monetary reform but on the "idiocy of the tax system" (January 25, 1952). Pound also suggests that he "wants a mag/ that LOCATES the tiny amount of real writing IN a civic order, or in civic chaos . . ." (May 29, 1952). Pound also asks Russell to keep his contributions anonymous: "These notes are strictly anonymous. . . . You have not had letters from me" (January 5, year not dated). Likewise in the other journals, Pound either uses pseudonyms or does not sign his name; it is likely that he did not want the doctors at St. Elizabeths or anyone else to know about his contributions to the journals for fear that he could be taken to trial.

      We can see another of Pound's contribution to a journal in his correspondence with Dallam Simpson, editor and publisher of Four Pages. Apparently Simpson was a minister because Pound addressed one of the envelopes to Reverend Simpson, South Side Baptist Church in Port Neches, Texas. Pound's correspondence to Simpson was also sent to Galveston, Texas in 1950 and Tyler, Texas in 1952. The correspondence contains few dates, and thus the letters are out of order; according to the correspondence at HRC, Four Pages ran from 1947 through 1951. In a letter dated April 27, 1947 to Simpson, Dorothy described the journal that Pound wanted: "The other thing on/in EP's mind, is the need for a very small monthly, that would stand for live thought. or even four pages in some other paper . . . ." She then asks Simpson if Simpson would be interested in helping with the journal. In a letter dated August 22, 1947, Dorothy sends what it looks like Pound's corrections to the title page of Four Pages, but her paranoia regarding Pound is quite apparent: "Please do not let anyone see this typescript-as it had EP's handwriting on it-better not let anyone see his mind is working even to that extent." She then asks Simpson, "'Would you be willing to act as editor?'" The first issue of the journal actually was published on December 1947 as a letter that explained that Four Pages was a four-page leaflet for writers and editors to fill, and the first issue was sent to thirty editors; it looks like both the letter and the draft were written by Pound.

      Pound's letters to Simpson describe literally the creation of a journal, infused with Pound's knowledge of editing and publishing. Not only did Pound contribute articles to Four Pages and edit articles from other writers, but he also told Simpson what articles to put in each edition. Pound also advised Simpson on the design of the journal, including the type of paper for publication. Simpson also acted as a corresponding secretary: Pound would write letters to editors and writers, asking for their written contributions for the journal; he would then send these letters to Simpson, so he could retype and send them. One of the people Pound contacted was Eliot; apparently Pound asked Eliot to write an article on the corruption in the Christian church: "As a Confucian I cannot help wondering whether the corruption of the Christians churches, which has certainly preoccupied you . . . is not due to some basic evil in Christianity itself, whether that evil be in the original teaching or infiltrated later . . ." (Undated letter). The writers that Pound also instructs Simpson to contact are Cummings, D. D. Paige, William Carlos Williams, and Olivia Agresti. Agresti contributed two pieces to Four Pages. The first was a letter, dated October 6, 1947, to Pound about postwar Italy, and the excerpts from the letter appeared in the January 1948 edition of Four Pages ("I Cease Not to Yowl": Ezra Pound's Letters to Olivia Rossetti Agresti 7). The second piece was an article entitled "Political Immaturity," which was sent to Simpson but not published ("I Cease Not to Yowl": Ezra Pound's Letters to Olivia Rossetti Agresti 8). Dorothy Pound also had a part in the creation of Four Pages: she corresponded with Simpson concerning which articles Pound told her were suitable to use in the journal and gave him money for the publishing and typesetting for at least the first issues. For example, in a letter dated August 11, 1947, she asked Simpson to get a printer's estimate for the journal. And with a letter dated February 2, 1948, Dorothy sent Simpson a check for fifty dollars for the typesetting and publishing of the first issue. Dorothy also forwarded Pound's letters to Simpson and typed his articles.

      The actual articles that Pound wrote were short and focused on economics, especially on Gesell. Pound wrote under the pseudonyms, T.H., J.T., and Texas Joe. In one letter, Pound writes about Four Pages and explains that the journal is not "mildly Gesellite but vigorously Gesellite" (1950). In the same letter, Pound also explains: "We are for public issue of the public money, with graded controls that leave a proper proportion of issue to central government, and a proper proportion to local and intermediate division"(1950). As mentioned in Chapter Two, Pound saw Gesell's theory of stamp scrip as means for government control of paper money: "Besides all EP's friends know he is Gesellite, save the wops who insist that there was no Gesell and that EP invented the whole Damn idea . . ." (undated letter from Pound to Simpson). In a blurb for Four Pages, Pound also writes about the topic of banks: "BANKS must be useful; they must be good for something or they wouldn't have continued to be used for four thousand years" (undated letter). Pound addresses an old issue of the bureaucrats: "The dirtiest form of crime is the usurpation of power by bureaucrats. The bureaucrat is dirtier than the gangster because the gangster is not being paid directly from the public purse, or betraying an open and public trust" (undated letter). There are also some literary topics in Four Pages, such as an article by William Carlos Williams about T.S. Eliot and Milton; however, in the blurbs for Four Pages and in the comments to Simpson, there are anti-Semitic references in terms of economics and also segregation, as will be seen further in the article.

      Pound also contributed to two other journals, The New Times and Edge, under Noel Stock, who resided in Australia and later wrote The Life of Ezra Pound. Pound began writing for The New Times in 1954, and his contributions, usually identified as "Item" in the correspondence to Stock, were short articles on whatever topic suited Pound. Regarding Edge, Stock notes that it was first entitled The Edge and then became Edge; its first publication began in October 1956 (443). Like NINE and Four Pages, the majority of articles for The New Times and Edge were anti-Semitic when dealing with, not surprisingly, economics. In these blurbs, Pound focuses on what he calls the "big Jews," who are involved in usury. Like his other journals, Pound also did not sign his name but used pseudonyms. Stock describes The New Times as a "Melbourne Social Credit paper" and as a vehicle for Pound's desire to educate his audience about economics: "The New Times soon became Pound's main means of alerting the world to the presence and dangers of economic injustice and political degradation, and between late 1955 and early 1957 it published eighty or more unsigned or pseudonymous items sent from St. Elizabeths" (442-443). Stock also explains his role in distributing Pound's blurbs in the journal: "Although the editor was aware that Pound was embellishing his columns, he probably did not know to what extent, for Pound sent the items to me-ranging from snippets to one of more than a thousand words-and I distributed them over the 'Magazine Section' of the paper, with the result that Pound was a dozen different people-he was John Vignon of Boston who write about English Common Law, John Foster who wrote from New York, he was a Paris correspondent, a Mexico City correspondent and a London correspondent, and he contributed numerous items under such initials as M.L., D.E.J., and J.T. and some were published unsigned"(443). Indeed, in the correspondence to Stock, Pound uses these names with his articles. Stock explains that copies of each issue of The New Times "were sent to Washington and then distributed by Pound to followers in other parts of the world" (443). Pound also wrote for Edge from 1956 through 1957, and he would make clear in the correspondence if the article was for The New Times or the Edge. As with The New Times, Pound also wrote under pseudonyms, such as George Slavin and T.J; and the content of the articles was the same as that of The New Times. Stock explains that he started the Edge in October of 1956 when another magazine failed to start, and he was left holding a group of translations by Pound from the French of Rimbaud and Tailhade (443). Stock writes, "Pound contributed more than thirty items, mainly prose, to the eight issues of Edge . . ." (443).

      The Burke Library at Hamilton College, Pound's alma mater, houses originals of The New Times from 1955-1957. Hamilton has five editions from 1955: January 13, August 26, September 9, November 4, and December 16 from 1955. It seems that for the year 1956 Hamilton has the majority of these editions: January 27, February 11, May 4, May 18, June 15, June 29, July 13, July 27, August 10, August 24, September 7, September 21, October 5, November 2, and November 16. For 1957, Hamilton has four issues: February 22, April 5, April 19, and August 23. From examining The New Times, it is evident that most of Pound's articles occurred in the section entitled "Perspectives," which began to appear in the journal in January 27, 1956. These entries can be cross-referenced with the "items," as Pound called them, in the Stock correspondence, located at the Harry Ransom Center. The collection at the Burke Library has few issues from 1955 and from 1957, and it was not evident that any contributions from 1955 were from Pound; however, at least one entry in 1957 seemed as if it could have been written by Pound.

      The first example of a piece that can be cross-referenced is a blurb that appeared in the January 27, 1956 issue of The New Times, under the title, "Art and Drugs." Pound writes about heroin and "other derivatives." He claims that the "internationalists," who he does not identify, supply heroin to attack the art world because they are the "most sensitive of the occident," and the "internationalists" also attack the indigent, "who, unfortified by three meals a day, take to stimulants" (7). This blurb appears to Stock in a letter, post marked December 22, 1955. This article is not cited in Donald Gallup's Ezra Pound: A Bibliography. Most of the entries from The New Times are indeed cited in Gallup's comprehensive Bibliography; however, there are some entries that are not in Gallup's work and thus are noted.

      In the February 11, 1956 issue, there are two entries that are not cited in Gallup. The first entry is entitled, "The Yankee Peril," and an excerpt from the article is as follows: "This peril is constituted by the sheer illiteracy of big business. The Roosevelts, male and female, got the level of the White House down to Mickey Rooney" (6). The second entry is entitled "Apostle of Light." signed by S.Y.J. The article is in connection with Churchill, "[He] had probably never spent half an hour thinking about government until he found himself in high office" (7). Pound further states, "The magazine section of the New Times utters this brief prayer for higher kindergarten instruction for high civil appointees" (7). Both "The Yankee Peril" and "Apostle of Light" can be cross referenced to Pound's letter, dated January 10, 1956, to Stock. Also, in the same issue, there is a blurb entitled "The Paris Report," which is signed by J. P., another of Pound's pseudonyms. This entry is also not marked in Gallup. Also in the same issue is a blurb entitled, "Our Common Heritage," which is signed by John Vignon, one of Pound's pseudonyms.

      In another article, entitled "Modern Education," that appeared in the May 18th issue, Pound writes the following:

One american student writes us: I asked the Economics Professor if he ever read the Constitution and he said it was not in his area, and that it came under Political Science 3 door down the hall. So I went to the Polly-Sci [sic] potentate, and he said: The History Department. (Two blocks down the street.) (6).
This quotation can be cross-referenced to Pound's letter dated April 22, 1956 to Stock. In the same issue, there is also a blurb entitled "Thought and Action," which is signed by T.G., yet another pseudonym. Both "Modern Education" and "Thought and Action" are noted in Gallup. Also of interest is the June 15, 1956 issue of The New Times, in which appears a poem entitled "The Baby," written by Alfred Venison. Though no cross-reference from Stock's letters was found yet; however, the name Alfred Venison was a pseudonym that was used by Pound in 1934 when he wrote several poems, including "The Baby," for the New English Weekly. In fact, "The Baby" was first printed in the New English Weekly on August 2, 1934 (Pound's Prose and Poetry, 6:194).

      From the dates, it seems that the articles that Pound sends to Stock are published at least three or four weeks later in The New Times. For example, an article entitled "The Races" that was published in the June 29, 1956 issue of The New Times first appeared in Pound's letter, dated May 27, 1956 to Stock. An excerpt from the article is a follows: "Antisemitism is unscientific, it is unaristotelian. Each case should be examined on its own merits. It is unfortunate for those who are trying to obtain harmony between the races that the unpleasant jews in Roosevelt's entourage should have outnumbered or at least equaled the sadistic Hopkins, and the mush-headed Wallace and other more or less aryan elements" (6). This quotation deserves some comment because Pound's statement regarding how anti-Semitism should be judged on an individual basis is common for him during this time because he believed that he indeed was not anti-Semitic due to the fact that his anger was only directed at those Jews involved in usury or in the Kahal. Also in the same issue, under the title "Slavery," Pound writes, "The jew managed sob-stuff in the jew-run agitation against race prejudice in post Roosevelt America do not mention the fact that slaves imported to the American colonies and States were already enslaved before being shanghaied to America" (6). Likewise, the blurb is cross-referenced to Pound's letter to Stock dated May 27, 1956. Both "The Races" and "Slavery" are cited in Gallup as appearing in the June 29, 1956 issue of The New Times (344, c1820b).

      In the July 13, 1956 issue, there is a blurb entitled "The Baruchracy," which can be cross-referenced to Pound's letter to Stock dated June 17, 1956: "One should observe impartiality in ethnological studies, inspecting each living specimen as an individual but having provisional categories, and a table of symptoms, hammite or Nordic, from our red-headed forebears drinking from the skulls of their enemies, to the kahal system of keeping a certain proportion of their subjects on the verge of hunger where they are ready to commit any crime for a sixpence" (quoted from Pound's letter to Stock). The title is a reference to Bernard Baruch, who was an American financier and advisor to Wilson, Roosevelt, and Truman. However, the statement is indicative of what Pound believed during World War II about the Kahal, and his statement during his time at St. Elizabeths regarding how Jews should be judged on an individual basis. This article is also cited in Gallup's Bibliography (344, c1820i). Another article entitled "Henry James" that appeared in the July 27, 1956 issue can be cross-referenced to Pound's letter to Stock dated July 2, 1956. The actual article is about what Henry James would think about the present (1956) mental, moral, and political squalor of today: "The jews wd/ appear to have crushed everyone in the U.S. who has uttered the least whisper of objection to either of them or their methods and to have terrified nearly everyone else. But they are no longer able to conceal the fact that they are doing it" (6). Also, in the same issue issue are two blurbs entitled "Mailbag," signed by J.T., another pseudonym, and "Quantity." These entries, along with "Henry James," are noted in Gallup (345, c1820k and c1820m).

      Yet another article entitled "De-Segregation," which appeared in The New Times on August 10, 1956, is first found in Pound's letter to Stock dated July 18, 1956. This article is also cited in Gallup (345, c1820o). In the article, Pound makes the following remarks about de-segregation: "It is perfectly well known that the fuss about 'de-segregation' in the U.S. has been started by the jews. Plenty of americans have been getting on quite nicely with coloured people for nearly a century. The theory of bastardization and mongrelism is not particularly admirable. The Beria-Frankfurter gang advocate mongrelization" (6). The reference to Beria refers to Lavrenti Beria, who was head of the Russian secret police under Stalin in 1938; he was head of the Soviet labor camps and responsible for mass murders. Frankfurter is a reference to Felix Frankfurter, who was a Supreme Court justice from 1939 through 1962 and an advisor to Roosevelt. It is disturbing that Pound would link these two men together. In the September 7, 1956 issue, there is an article entitled the "Kahal System," a common theme in Pound's writing regarding Jews. This article does not appear in Gallup. As one can see, Pound's subject matter for The New Times was on a variety of topics, such as education, anti-Semitism, and segregation. The frustration that filled his writings about economics, politics, and world issues in the journals, such as The New Times and the Edge, spewed out in anti-Semitic slurs as seen in the next section, which focuses, in part, on the anti-Semitic literature that Pound received while he was in St. Elizabeths.

      Many of the newsletters and pamphlets that Pound received during his confinement at St. Elizabeths focused on Jewish conspiracy; however, there were some newsletters that focused on Social Credit, Fascism, and other issues. The following newsletters discuss such issues as Social Credit and Fascism; however, these newsletters do not contain any of Pound's markings. This fact is important because, at least in the newsletters and pamphlets in the Burke Library, he used a red pencil to clearly underline text; Pound's red pencil was very telling in what he found interesting or important and what he did not. For example, one of newsletters, entitled Abundance, contained articles on Social Credit. There were only three issues from April through June for the year 1948, and there were no markings on this paper. Regarding Communism, there were seven issues of the Boise Valley Herald from September 4, 1947 through November 10, 1947; however, like Abundance, these newsletters did not show any of Pound's markings. There was also one issue, dated August, 1954, of the newsletter Expose that had some articles on Fascism; however, this issue also did not have markings. The newsletter Freedom and Plenty, of which the Burke collection has eight issues from 1946-1950, focused on issues that concerned Gesell and stamp scrip. In fact, Pound wrote a letter to the editor that stated that during his time in Italy when he was writing on Gesell, he was not in any danger (Freedom and Plenty). There were also eleven issues of Money, which ranged in date from 1946-1951.

      In The Daily American, Pound underlined a quotation from Rodolfo Graziani, who in 1943 was appointed Minister of Defense for the Republic of Salò. Graziani said that Hitler made him take this position of commander: "If I did not accept the post of Minister of Defense, the Germans would initiate the scorched- earth policy in Italy as they did in Poland" (8). This statement is actually false, since it was Stalin who initiated the scorched-earth policy when Germany invaded the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941. Also, in the February 1950 issue of the Idaho's Lamplifter, Pound underlined a sentence in an article about William Pelley, head of the Silvershirts, who was released from jail after seven years (5). As seen in Pound in Purgatory: From Economic Radicalism to Anti-Semitism, Leon Surette argued that Pelley's article "The Mystery of the Civil War and Lincoln's Death," published in 1934, pushed Pound further into a conspiracy belief involving Jews. By Pound's marking this item about Pelley's release from jail, it is apparent that Pelley must have had some interest for Pound. In the June 1956 issues of the newsletter Task Force, Pound also marked a reference to the Alaskan Siberia Bill, which if passed, according to the article in Task Force, would put "undesirable patriots" in Alaska. The author of the article is anonymous, but the author implies that "undesirable patriots" would be placed in a mental institution in Alaska. Pound also highlighted this reference with his red pencil in the August 1956 issue of the newsletter, RES, which alluded to the same outcome. In reality, the Alaskan Siberian Bill was actually a reference to the Alaskan Mental Health Act, which was an act regarding the care and provisions of the mentally ill in Alaska, and it gathered some attention in that it stated that any health or police officer could take a person, whom they saw as mentally incompetent, to a mental ward; that person would have to wait a maximum of at least five days for a mental exam.

      Pound remained steadfast in his belief of a Jewish conspiracy. According to the anti-Semitic newsletters that Pound marked, there were three common areas that involved conspiracy: Palestine, nuclear war, and Communism. For example, in an undated issue of the Americana, Pound has the following quotation marked with his red pencil about how Moses was a great salesman: "Read how he conducted the Promised Land project and consider the Israelites" (175). This quotation is more than likely in reference to the State of Israel, which was formed in 1948. The actual quotation can be read two ways. It is either in reference to how the Israelites, according to the Bible, actually acquired Israel: Moses as the salesman was able to persuade Pharaoh, albeit it through various plagues, to free the Israelites. The second way of interpreting the quotation may refer to how the Israelites, according to the Bible, drove out pagan societies and took over the Promised Land, Palestine. Either way the quotation is read, the result is negative. This is the only quotation from the anti-Semitic newsletters that Pound marked; however, he marked several newsletters that concerned the Jewish role in nuclear weapons and Communism.

      In article for the Boise Valley Herald, Pound highlighted an article on the front page of an issue dated April 1, 1948. Pound marked a section regarding how the Hiroshima bomb was dropped on August 6, 1945 despite the fact that Japan made an offer two weeks earlier on July 22, 1945. The date of July 22nd is more than likely in reference to the Potsdam Declaration, which outlined the terms of surrender for Japan; it was issued by Truman, Churchill, and Chiang Kai-Shek, President of the Republic of China, on July 26, 1945. Japan accepted the terms of the Potsdam Declaration after its surrender after the bombs were dropped. Pound marked the following quotation in relation to the mistaken fact made by the anonymous author that Japan made an offer: "Many people in other parts of the world are largely aware of these basic facts. They should not longer remain hidden from the British people. It makes a grisly mockery of the Nuremberg Trials to discover that our scientists have adopted the same complacent and irresponsible attitude which was condemned so whole heartedly when it was manifested in the German leaders"(Boise Valley Herald). The Nuremberg Trials were two sets of trials of Nazi war criminals; the trials were held in the German city of Nuremberg from 1945 through 1949. What the author is implying is that the scientists who made the nuclear bomb were just as guilty as the war criminals on trial in Nuremberg. In the July10, 1953 issue of The American Nationalists, Pound also marked the headline, "Jews Take Over Atomic Bomb." The headline is more than likely in reference to Robert Oppenheimer, Albert Einstein, and Leo Szilard. In March 1940, Einstein and Szilard sent Roosevelt a letter, which warned the President that the fission of the uranium nucleus had been discovered and that Germany may use this knowledge to make a nuclear weapon. Leo Szilard then went on to work with Robert Oppenheimer and other scientists on the Manhattan Project. The headline implies that Jews were responsible for creating the atomic bomb.

      Pound also marked the headline, "Jews Plot to Murder McCarthy," which appeared in the August 10, 1953 issue of The American Nationalist. The headline is in reference to Senator Joseph McCarthy and the "Red Scare," which took place in the early 1950s. McCarthy conducted hearings on communist sedition in America and alleged communist infiltration of the government and military. Robert Oppenheimer was a victim of the "Red Scare" and had his security clearance stripped for alleged past Communist sympathies. In a section entitled "Red Sidelight" that appeared in the May 1957 edition of The Point, Pound marked some lines regarding how the Bolshevist movement was a Jewish movement and how Communism was authored by the Jews. Peter Novick in his work, The Holocaust in American Life, writes, "The popular association of Jews with Communism dated from the Bolshevik Revolution" (92). Novick notes that the time between World War I and II, "the Communist Jew was a staple of anti-Semitic propaganda in both the United States and Europe" and that there was a renewal of charges after 1945 because American Jews "for obvious reasons, were the Red Army's greatest cheerleader during the war and often retained positive feelings about the Soviet Union long after other American had abandoned them"(92). Novick claims that many American Communists in the late 1940s were Jews: "An American Jewish Committee memorandum in the late 1940s cited a private FBI estimate that 50 to 60 percent of Communist Party members were Jews . . ."(93). The belief that Communism was a Jewish movement was a popular conspiracy theory.

      Several anti-Semitic newsletters that did not contain any of Pound's markings are also in the collection at the Burke Library. As mentioned before in this chapter, the fact that Pound did not mark a newsletter usually meant that it was not important to him. Such anti-Semitic newsletters that were not marked were The Coming Red Dictatorship, Common Sense, and The Cross and the Flag. In fact, in an article, "The Passing of the White Race," which was published in the Coming Red Dictatorship, the following quotation is the exact opposite of what Pound believed regarding Jews: "The Jews cry Anti-Semitism whenever accused, but the correct name of Anti-Semitism is 'Jew conscious.' If a group is guilty of a crime against others then they should be decried as a group, just as you would decry the Capone gang, or the Mafia for the same reason" (2). Pound maintained during this period in St. Elizabeths that Jews should be judged on an individual basis; he said that the only Jews he attacked were those Jews who were involved in the Kahal or those Jews and non-Jews who were involved with usury.

      Pound would also write "File" or "Keep" on newsletters that he deemed important. Pound wrote "File" or "Keep" on most of the issues of The New Times. Also Pound wrote "File" on issues from The Social Creditor, a journal that supported the ideas of Social Credit. There are about seventy-five issues of The Social Creditor that date from December 1946 through February 1955. The description in the The Social Creditor, which appeared on its cover, is as follows: "This journal expresses and supports the policy of the Social Credit Secretariat, which is a non-party, non-class organisation neither connected with nor supporting any political party, Social Credit or otherwise." The journal was published in London. Pound would usually mark articles that were written by Rev. Henry Swabey, who was a Social Creditor, following of Pound, founder of Voice, and Four Pages representative in England. Swabey, in fact, wrote an article about Pound in the January 17, 1953 edition. Pound would also mark items from E. (Eustace, though not identified with full first name) Mullins, who visited Pound at St. Elizabeths and wrote the biography, This Difficult Individual, Ezra Pound. Pound also marked articles that were written by Denis Goacher, who was a poet and broadcaster who recorded Pound at St. Elizabeths; he wrote the foreword to Pound's translation of Sophokles' Women of Trachis, which was published by Neville Spearman in 1956. In 1957, New Directions also published another version; however, Pound's translation of Women of Trachis first appeared in the Hudson Review in 1954. Also, Pound wrote "File" on several issues of another political paper, Voice, which was founded by Swabey and had the same publisher and printer, which was J. Hayes & Co. in Liverpool, as The Social Creditor. Though there were no items that looked like they were written by Pound in The Social Creditor, Pound did contribute articles to Voice.

      The Burke Library has eighteen issues of Voice from 1954 and three issues from 1955. Gallup does not cite any articles that were written by Pound during this period for Voice; however, in 1956 through 1957, Gallup cites seventeen pieces that Pound contributed to Voice. The collection at the Burke Library also only has the following issues, in which, according to Gallup, Pound's articles appeared: April 7, 1956, May 19, 1956, June 16, 1956, June 30, 1956, and January 26, 1957. Pound also marked "File" on three issues-April 21, 1956, October 6, 1956, and December 15, 1956-but it does not seem that Pound contributed to these editions, nor are they listed in Gallup's Bibliography. As with The New Times and Edge, Pound also wrote under several pseudonyms in Voice. In the article, "Total Morass," which was published in the issue dated April 7, 1956, Pound used the pseudonym Henry Briscoe (Gallup 342, c1813f). Under the name, H. Briscoe, Pound wrote a review entitled "George Santayana's Letters" in the May 19, 1956 issue (Gallup 343, c1814n). In the June 16, 1956 issue, Gallup notes that under the pseudonym, W. Watson, Pound wrote an article entitled "Mission at Rome" (344, 1820a).

      It is interesting to see how Pound's ideas were generated in certain newsletters. For example, Pound's theories regarding banking appeared in an undated leaflet that was part of the eight issues of Doubt: The Fortean Society Magazine. The Fortean Society was founded in 1937 in order to continue the work of Charles Fort, who was gathered material on UFOs, poltergeists, ghosts, and other psychic phenomena. The anonymous writer of the leaflet shares Pound's ideas about banking and even tries to mimic Pound's style of writing in the capitalization of words:

"We all know that Rothschild's BANK made England take from the Colonies their money forcing them to 'Borrow from the BANK'-interest-high TAXES, soon had the Colonies STARVING-and it was fight or die!   They fought the War of the Revolution for the RIGHT of their Colonial Governments to ISSUE their own Money and WON . . ."(Doubt 1).

These words are not Pound's but are the same ideas that he wrote about during World War II. On the back of the issues of Doubt and the leaflet is the name, Prince Boris de Rachewiltz (Pound's son-in-law) as one of the contact people for information about the newsletter. One of Pound's ideograms also appeared in the Spring 1947 issue of Doubt.

      The newsletters housed in Burke Library at Hamilton College do reveal another side of Pound because they show, in part, what he was reading and what he was collecting during his time at St. Elizabeths. These newsletters are only one part of the collection. There are seven or more boxes that contain newspaper clippings and other ephemera from 1945 through 1970s. As far as Pound's anti-Semitism during the time-frame of St. Elizabeths is concerned, the correspondence at the Harry Ransom Center sheds a greater light on to Pound's unchanged view of Jews.

      It is evident from the correspondence at HRC that Pound knew at least about the gas ovens as early as the 1950s. In his correspondence to Ingrid Davies, he makes a reference to the gas ovens and also suggests why Mussolini and Hitler used them: "There were NO cremating ovens in Italy/ VERY few krauts knew of those in Germany. . . . And others near the top were horrified when they heard of them.BUT Mus/ and Adolf were trying to keep their countries out of debt to the s.o.b." (June 3, 1955). Keeping in mind Pound's radio speeches and even his writing for Il Popolo, this explanation, albeit horrifying, is in line with what Pound believed during the war: the Jewish usurers and the aryio-kikes were his enemies as well as, he believed, Mussolini's and Hilter's. Pound did claim repeatedly that he did not know about the gas ovens during World War II. For example, in a letter postmarked March 7, 1953 to Denis Goacher, Pound writes that there were "no gas ovens in Italy." Also, in a letter dated August 7, 1953 to Olivia Rossetti Agresti, who resided in Italy, Pound wrote: "Even a man in Hesse{s'} position did not know about gas ovens till Sept. 1944 . . . and there were none in ITALY . . ."("I Cease Not to Yowl": Ezra Pound's Letters to Olivia Rossetti Agresti 119). The reference to Hesse is Fritz Hesse, who was a representative of the German News Agency as well as press attaché at the German embassy in London from 1935 to 1939; from 1939 through 1945 he was reporter and advisor on British affairs at Hitler's headquarters ("I Cease Not to Yowl": Ezra Pound's Letters to Olivia Rossetti Agresti 119). It is apparent that Pound was not aware of the Final Solution while he was in Italy. In a letter dated February 12, 1948 to Peter Russell, Olga Rudge comments on the fact that those in Italy, implying Pound and herself, did not know about the Final Solution during the war: "He [Charles Norman] gets in a statement by Zukovsky [sic] which arrived too late for 1945 number (P.M.)-it is important coming from a Jew as it states he (Z) never felt trace of anti semitic feeling when meeting E.P. in fact its [sic] very decent. he only spoils it at end by saying he cant forgive E.P. for 'having overlooked Belsen'-As if anyone here knew about such things or even in the States-till afterwards." Rudge's letter pertains to Zukofsky's statement that appeared in Charles Norman's book, The Case of Ezra Pound, which was published in 1948. Rudge was concerned about Pound's label as an anti-Semite, but the letter also revealed the fact that she, along with many others, did not know about the Final Solution during the war.

      Pound's references about Jews are difficult to digest in this present time, considering what has been revealed about the Holocaust. When reading Pound's correspondence during the 1950s, one must remember, albeit most difficult, to put his comments in a historical context. During the fifties, discussion of the Holocaust was not an ongoing topic as it is today. Peter Novick in his work The Holocaust in American Life explains that by the 1970s and 1980s the Holocaust had become a "distinctive thing: clearly marked off, qualitatively and quantitatively, from other Nazi atrocities and from previous Jewish persecutions, singular in its scope, its symbolism, and its world-historical significance"(19). It was not until the Eichmann trials in 1963 that attention was turned to the Holocaust and the extermination camps. Hannah Arendt wrote a series of articles for The New Yorker in 1963, and these articles appeared in book form in 1963 under the title, Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil. Arendt's argument caused a stir because she suggested that Eichmann was not the monster that people thought he was; rather, he was an efficient bureaucrat doing what the government told him to do. Arendt argued that under the conditions of a totalitarian government, such as the Nazi regime, ordinary people could commit horrendous crimes. Two other books appeared in 1958 in other languages and then were translated into English in 1960: Primo Levi's Survival at Auschwitz and Elie Wiesel's Night. These two books "forever changed North American consciousness of the extermination camps. Once these works came to the attention of American Jews, the perception of the horrors of Auschwitz came to be shaped by Wiesel's and Levi's memories and the images so brilliantly forged by their literary imaginations"(Morgan 30). What Wiesel and Levi succeed to do in their memoirs is to put a face to the horror of what was unspeakable. When reading Pound's anti-Semitic remarks, especially about the Final Solution, it is difficult to ignore the images that Wiesel and Levi have created. Keeping history in mind, Pound's comments about Jews during his confinement in St. Elizabeths continued to focus on conspiracy and usury.

      The topic of usury is mentioned throughout the correspondence at the Harry Ransom Center. Pound also stands firm in his support of Mussolini and Hitler in their battle, he believed, against usury. In a letter dated June 22, 1955 to Davies, Pound writes: "It was Adolf and Mus NOT borrowing what they didn't need to borrow that so riled the high kikery . . . ." What is apparent in this statement is that Pound points, as he did in his radio speeches, to only specific Jews. This certainly is not an excuse for his anti-Semitism, rather it is an observation that he truly believes in a conspiracy theory that involves Jews and usury.

      In Stock's journals, The New Times and Edge, Pound directed his anti-Semitism to those involved in usury. In a letter to Stock, Pound wrote that a just punishment for usurers "would be to put them on islands where there are none. Provide them with the minimum of food, enough to last till the next harvest, and let 'em survive on their own energy" (May 25, 1956). In an article for Edge, Pound defines the anti-Semite as "anyone who objects to the present financial system . . ." (postmarked November 1, 1957). In another excerpt for the Edge, Pound also defines anti-Semitism in terms of those who controlled money: "ANTISEMITISM has nothing to do with a dislike of jews. ANTISEMITISM is a term applied to anyone in Churchillian language who objects to the control and issue of money by a gang of heterocline [sic] and irresponsible characters . . ." (postmarked Oct. 5, 1957). Pound also gives Peter Russell an explanation on what to do with the usurers: "taiT the jewce it's the usurers that gramp/ wants carbolicd" (December 29, 1952). Carbolize means to treat or sterilize with phenol, which in its diluted form is carbolic acid, which is used as an antiseptic or disinfectant. Though it is difficult to get by Pound's hatred, it is clear in this quote that Pound once again refers to the usurers and not all Jews. In a letter dated April 8, 1957 to Josef Bard, Pound also writes about usury:

Usura NOT the force, or motive, but the instrument
                                       old theolog list of vices remains.
This quotation is interesting because Pound also wrote in an article dated October 31, 1935 for the New English Weekly that usury is actually the root of all wars: "One usurer is as another. Hell makes no distinction. . . . Usury is the root of all wars" (Pound's Poetry and Prose, 6:333.). However, he does change his mind in 1939, according to an unpublished letter to Zukofsky, dated January 7, 1939: "'Lot of hot steam from Bzl/ amounts to saying that I am a shit because I won't regard a SYMPTOM as a cause. . . . The ROOT is avarice . . ." (Moody 79). Likewise, Pound wrote in the Foreword, dated July 1972, to William Cookson's Selected Prose: 1909-1965:
Re USURY:
I was out of focus, taking a symptom for a cause.
The cause is AVARICE.
Whether Pound believed usury to be a symptom or a cause, he firmly believed, at least during his confinement at St. Elizabeths, that usurious Jews were involved in a conspiracy.

      Even though Pound remained adamant that Jews were involved in a conspiracy, the scope of blame widened to include such diverse topics as psychiatry, illegal drugs, and de-segregation. It is understandable that Pound would turn his anger towards psychiatrists, and it comes forth in terms of anti-Semitic slurs. For example, in a letter dated May 8, 1955, Pound tells Davies: "everything that made life worth living in 1900 DEFILED and made idiotic by kikietrists." In a letter to Noel Stock dated September 23, 1954, Pound writes:

40 year goddamn psych racket up the damn flue/
a PHYSICAL not a mental problem.
            broadcast this to the full and kill off ALL kikiatrists/
Not only did Pound insult psychiatrists, but he turned his attention to illegal drug-sellers. In a letter dated September 24, 1955 to Stock, Pound writes, "It has been known for 30 years that the reds meant to use drugs as a political weapon to create disorder and break down the morale of anyone, capitalist devils, christian believers etc. who opposed their [the reds] system of central control, based on the kahal system." In another letter dated March 18, 1952 to Max Wykes-Joyce, who was a supporter of Pound and also an art historian, Pound links psychiatry and illegal drugs together in a conspiracy against non-Jews: "whether dope peddling and kikeitry are as flagrant/ NOTE dope as political instrument / communist/ ALZO psychiatry lower than dope AIMED at paralyzing the will of all aryans/ and preparing them for slavery . . . ." It seemed that Pound had a personal attack against drug dealers and drugs in general due to his association with Sheri Martinelli, a young artist who started to visit Pound in 1952. According to Humphrey Carpenter's A Serious Character: The Life of Ezra Pound, Martinelli and some of Pound's other students were involved in drugs; though he was concerned, Pound did not raise the subject with his pupils (804-805). Pound helped Martinelli publish in 1956 La Martinelli, a booklet of reproductions of paintings; it contained introduction by Pound and among the plates a portrait of him (Stock 439). Stock describes her as "a strange, rather scatterbrained young woman" and also notes that Martinelli is said "to have inspired canto 90, which is perhaps the most lyrical of the later cantos" (439).

      Pound also blamed the Jews for de-segregation, an explosive topic that was making its mark on history in the 1950s. In a statement for Four Pages, Pound asks Simpson to put the following lines about Jews:

"The jews differ from all other races. ALL other races want to be segregated." an anti-semite (undated letter).
The anti-Semite who wrote these words is, of course, Pound. In another statement for Four Pages, Pound writes:
but E. P. particularly friendly with blacks.
                                    Whom it might seem the yitts try to push out in front re/ "race prejudice" (undated letter).
In a blurb that is postmarked July 18, 1956 for Stock's The New Times, Pound writes: "It is perfectly well know that the fuss a bout [sic] 'de-segregation' in the U.S. has been started by the jews. Plenty of americans have been getting on quite nicely with coloured people for nearly a century." Pound may have been influenced by the views of John Kasper, who started a correspondence with Pound in 1950. Greg Barnhisel in "'Hitch Your Wagon to a Star:' The Square Dollar Series and Ezra Pound" said that in Kasper's letters to Pound, Kasper believed that "Jews . . . have inspired the integration movement and wish to integrate the South so that they can upset the economic order and, presumably, gain economic control of the South for themselves" (283). Pound's association with Kasper, who would end up in prison in 1959 for his involvement with the bombing of a desegregated school in Nashville, was indeed a problem for Pound: "Kasper involvement with Pound is evidence of one of the poet's greatest obstacles in regaining respectability during the 1940s and 1950s-Pound's willingness to take under his wing any type of crackpot, bigot, or conspiracy theorist who agreed with any of Pound's own economic theories, and his obstinate refusal to distance himself from these disciples"(Barnhisel 275).

      John Kasper began communicating through letters with Pound in 1950 after Kasper graduated from Columbia; in New York, he opened a bookstore, Make it New Bookshop, which was named after Pound's favorite dictum (Barnhisel 275). In his bookstore, Kasper sold Nazi-oriented literature and stocked all of Pound's books that were in print (Barnhisel 275). In 1951, Pound referred Kasper to T. David Horton, a law student from Pound's alma mater, Hamilton College, and both Kasper and Horton started the Square Dollar Series: "Spurred on by Pound's conviction . . . that what America sorely needed was a student-aimed series of inexpensive reprints of crucial economic and historical texts, Kasper and Horton founded a publishing house in 1951 and immediately began the 'Square Dollar Series.' Not surprisingly, Pound's own work formed the cornerstone of the series . . ."(Barnhisel 276). Barnhisel explains that since Laughlin's New Directions Press owned the American copyrights to Pound's primary books, Kasper and Horton could only print Pound's secondary writings such as Pound's translations of Confucius's Unwobbling Pivot and The Great Digest, with Ernest Fenollosa's essay on "The Chinese Written Character as a Medium for Poetry" appended (276). Barnhisel notes that New Directions also owned a collection of Pound's translations of Confucius that was published in 1947, and Laughlin pleaded with Pound not to let Kasper and Horton publish the other book (276). Pound had direct influence over the texts selected, and he also wrote, anonymously, the majority of the Square Dollar advertising materials: "In its publicity, the Square Dollar Series emphasized its desire to serve the academic community: using one of Pound's favorite phrases, the books were 'American textbooks for students who want things first'"(Barnhisel 276-77). Titles issued by the Square Dollar Series include Alexander Del Mar's Roman and Moslem Moneys and A History of Monetary Crimes and Thomas Hart Benton's Bank of the United States (Barnhisel 281). Interestingly, Barnhisel notes that such a work, like Benton's Bank of the United States, Pound had originally asked Laughlin to publish but was rejected (278).

      Barnhisel also notes that Kasper became more involved with politics after the 1954 Supreme Court Brown v. Board of Education decision, which mandated desegregation in public education. In 1954, Kasper was spending more time fighting desegregation and less time publishing books for the Square Dollar Series, so Horton did most of the publishing and fewer books came out; in 1957, Kasper and Horton began to argue about financial matters, and the partnership was dissolved (Barnhisel 284). By 1957, Kasper had made a name for himself regarding his racist activities: "He had been arrested at a riot in a Clinton, Tennessee high school In September 1965, and two months later was arrested again for instigating another anti-integration riot"(Barnhisel 285).

      After the Square Dollar partnership ended, Kasper founded the newspaper, The Clinton-Knox County Stars and Bars: A Nationalist-Attack Newspaper Serving East Tennessee. In the first issue, under the article "Three Jews," the anonymous writer, probably Kasper, writes the following about segregation: "Undoubtedly the Jew is the chief instigator of race-mixing and mongrelization. It's no surprise that the esponiage [sic] ring engaged in spying for the reds who were arrested in New York this week are all Jews . . . Jews push integration because they are mongrels in the first place"(2). In the same issue, there is also an editorial, more than likely written by Kasper, about Pound. In the editorial entitled "Clare Boothe Luce," who was then the Italian ambassador to Italy, the author blames Luce for not responding to the feedback from Italians to free Pound: "And, why did she not respond to the countless pleas of Italian intellectual, religious, academic, and political leaders demanding the immediate release from an 11-year-political imprisonment of Ezra Pound, America's greatest poet, man of letters, and leader in the life-death struggle against deadly usury, national and international; champion for freedom from ruinous taxation and the right to issue circulating currency against available goods and work done, instead of the present infamy of interest-bearing bonds which benefits only the jew-bankers in New York and Washington?"(2). It is clear the writer of this article, Kasper, was a great admirer of Pound. Indeed in article dated February 27, 1957 in the New York Herald Tribune, the headline read: "SEGREGATIONIST KASPER IS POUND DISCIPLE" (Barnhisel 287). Stock says that Pound's release in 1957 was delayed a year due to this article, which brought Pound's association with Kasper to the attention of the government, who thought Pound might be involved with the racial problems in the South (446).

      There are some references to Kasper and even the Ku Klux Klan in the correspondence at the Harry Ransom Center, and the references that mention the K.K.K show little respect for the organization. For example in a letter dated May 20, 1957 to Simpson, Pound writes: "Too bad the KKK is illiterate and keeps on with cliches re/ Fascism, and Muss and Adolf/ WHEN JK [John Kasper] ventures on ideology . . . ." Pound was concerned about the K.K.K. because in 1957, they burned a cross in front of Simpson's church. Pound wrote to Ingrid Davies about the burning: "Dallam rather amused at fiery cross burned in front of his teXas church, as it implies that all poundistas are nt [sic] of the K.K.K. (Ku Klux)" (postmarked June, 2, 1957). However, Pound's focus was not on African-Americans but on Jews, some of whom he believed to be the enemy.

      According to the correspondence from the Harry Ransom Center, Pound did not think of himself as an anti-Semite, and he denied his anti-Semitism many times in letters to Peter Russell, Dallam Simpson, and Noel Stock. Pound insisted that he was not anti-Semitic, such as in his correspondence to Peter Russell, but the correspondence was filled with racial slurs. In one letter, Pound advises Russell what to write about Pound's anti-Semitism for an issue of NINE: "re/ ABC/ blurb / shd/ emphasize that it was E.P state of knowledge twenty years ago . . . that EP was not then considered antisemite, nor has he been since so considered by those who know him . . ." (May 29, 1952). In an undated letter to Russell, Pound also tells Russell to write the following about Pound's anti-Semitism: "he [Pound] does not appear to have shown any particular brutality to individual jews whom he has met; nor to have discriminated against jews in his literature . . . ." In another example, in a letter to Russell, Pound writes, "Read yr/ Merchant of Venice and learn that NO unfavourable mention of ANY jew can be of use to a gov / ALWAYS leads to charge of antiYittism. And NO yitt will back you up. Let 'em alone" (undated letter). This quote is familiar to what Pound state in Guide to Kulchur about how anti-Semitism is the usurer's red-herring because it throws the "dogs" off the true scent of usury.

      Pound also denies his anti-Semitism in his contributions to Simpson's Four Pages. The articles that Pound contributed to Simpson's Four Pages concern topics on economics and politics but are also filled with racial comments even though Pound said that the journal was not anti-Semitic. In a letter to Simpson, Pound writes about the journal's stance on anti-Semitism: "WE DO NOT consider ourselves antisemitic . . ." (March 10, 1956). In another blurb for Four Pages, Pound, under the pseudonym J.T., writes again about the journal's view of anti-Semitism: "No, we are not going anti-semite" (undated letter). The "we" refers to the journal, Four Pages, and its editors. In another small article for Four Pages, Pound attempts not to be anti-Semitic, but the passage is insulting: "some of the worlst [sic] public enemies are jews, and some are emphatically not jews. . . . In the case of men of mixed race we are in no way entitled to suppose that their vices derive from their jewish rather than from their non-jewish ancestry" (undated letter). In this quote, his ambivalence towards Jews starts to show again, as it did in the late 1930s and 1940s. The quote shows that during this period Pound focused his anti-Semitism on individual Jews. For example, in another letter to Simpson, Pound writes, "I think if we go on printing Disraeli that will be fair representation of jewry / their Greatest, or at least one of their greatest con-men . . ." (undated letter). Benjamin Disraeli was England's first and only Jewish Prime Minister. Pound's words are disparaging towards Disraeli because he was one of the "big Jews," whom Pound attacked. These remarks were from a man who claimed that Four Pages was not an anti-Semitic journal; however, Pound did not see himself as an anti-Semite because he thought his attacks were justified.

      Pound also denies his anti-Semitism in his contributions to Noel Stock's journals, The New Times and Edge. In an excerpt for The New Times, Pound, who referred to himself as the anonymous correspondent, writes: "C.H.D. [C. H. Douglas] was anti-sem. of course yr/ anon crspdt is NOT" (March 10, 1956). However, his remarks to Stock and his anonymous contributions to The New Times and Edge are indeed anti-Semitic. For example, in an article for The New Times, Pound writes: "but ALL of ANYTHING touched by jews is Corrupt . . . BUT all that is touched by kike, stinks" (July 29, 1954). Yet in another article for The New Times, Pound writes: "We offer the idea that he [Stalin] didn't kill off enough jews quick enough . . ." (Stock, August 9, 1956). The "we" in the previous quote refers to The New Times. These last two quotations certainly are difficult to read because they are filled with such hatred, but these quotations are unusual for Pound during this time because who he attacked in the majority of the correspondence at HRC were not all Jews in general, but what he called the "big Jews."

      In Pound's correspondence to Noel Stock, Pound writes many times that he only focused on "big Jews," who were part of the Kahal organization. Pound believed that Kahal was a central authority of rich Jews, who controlled Jewish communities. It is interesting to see how in the correspondence to Stock, Pound writes that the Kahal is the enemy to the other Jews. For example, in an excerpt for The New Times, Pound explains the Kahal: "The term anti-semite is used at present by the lowest scoundrels to inconvenience any honest man who opposes international perfidy. . . . The kahal system, as system, has not been sufficiently publicised. Roosevelt practiced it, Churchill appears more and more as the goy out in front. The kahal system is simply that of a small irresponsible oligarchy, keeping a large number of jews (or anyone else) on the brink of poverty so as to be ready to ooze with gratitude for a crust or any other small favour" (September 29, 1956). In another letter postmarked November 17, 1956 to Stock, Pound also defines the Kahal system:

      In all this the goy shows the highest magnitude of stupidity, part of which is due to his ignorance of jewish institutions and tendencies. . . . The kahal system, as distinct from either British or American constitutional government, is the rule by an irresponsible group of rich men, who keep a number of their fellows at starvation level so that they will do anything for a quick buck or a quick ruble. The term goy for non-conformists currently supposed to mean cattle might interest a philologist, as evidence of the hebrew penchant for altering the meaning of words, as it presumably derives from the greek "xoiros," [χοξροs] a pig, and the rabbis probably smile a faint smile as the non-jew mistakes it to mean a slightly more respected member of the animal kingdom.

Pound's definition of the Kahal is the same as what appeared in his radio speeches; however, the second half of this quote is an example of Pound's sharp-edged humor. In a letter from Olga Rudge to Peter Russell, Rudge also comments on the Kahal system and Pound's attack on Jews: "E.P. always saw tragedy of small jew-betrayed by Kahal-Had nothing against jews but usury " (October 11, 1948). Pound also believed as he said in his broadcast dated April 30, 1942 that he believed the Kahal was responsible for World War II. In another letter to Stock, Pound claims that he only focused on the Jews who caused the World War II: "never attacked kikes as such but only those individs/ who were trying to get war between Eng/ and Germany . . ." (May 1, 1957). Pound also made the following comment at least three times in his letters to Stock: "Every jew should be examined on his own merits" (postmarked June 3, 1956).

      The majority of comments that appear in Pound's anti-Semitic articles for The New Times and Edge are directed towards Jews as a group rather than as individuals. For example, in an article dated August 1, 1956, for The New Times, Pound, who signed his name under the pseudonym of Jose Boler, makes the following about the Jewish homeland: "The jews have a home land, not that the majority of them saught [sic] it, or seek it. They got it by outsmarting Arthur Balfour whom no one suspects of basic honesty. He and Sykes made out a proclamation, it does not say what the zionists have been clever enough to make the general public believe. Rothschild donating 80 thousand pounds, more or less, exercised that practical sapience which the jews so admire and picked up one hundred thousand, more or less, on Tel Aviv real estate." Arthur Balfour was the British foreign secretary and author of the Balfour Declaration. The Balfour Declaration, was a letter, dated November 1917, from Balfour to Lord Rothschild that stated that the British government was in favor of establishing a Jewish homeland in Palestine. The reference to Sykes refers to Sir Mark Sykes, who was an integral part of the Sykes-Picot Agreement in May 1916 between Britain and France; the agreement outlined the borders of what would become Palestine. Sykes is said to have helped Balfour write the Balfour Declaration. Pound then continues:

The non-jews have been suckers for more than three thousand years. Many of them, horrified at the definiteness of language, protesting vigorously against discrimination, confess privately to their allergy. The United Nations is a heteroclite, it pretends to be ready to include men of divers opinion, though we have no convincing proof that is does tolerate diversity. Yet on the assumption that it might, or could or should, surely if the jews have an Israel, the allergic might also desire a country where they, as one cultivated chinaman one [sic] put it, might pass their lives without ever meeting a semite. We have no doubt that several South American or Central American areas would be only to delighted to establish immunity. Namely to admit no jews whatever. In short if the jews have a country, why shouldn't we?
These words are again quite distasteful because Pound is writing about Jews in general rather than those Jews who are engaged or usury or in the Kahal. This is quotation is quite different than his usual anti-Semitic tirade against the Kahal or usurers. Pound is telling Jews to go to Palestine, and he is even suggesting that those allergic to Jews might go to a country without Jews. These lines are reminiscent of the one article in Il Popolo where Pound called the Jewish race a disease. In another piece for The New Times or Edge, Pound writes, "INCIDENTALLY the American Citizen is not required by LAW to admire jews . . . Yet since that falsest and phoniest of Executives, F.D.R. packed the Supreme Court with his stooges and with the associaters of Frankfurther, it has been assumed that americans are legally required to admire jews; to accept the Talmudic principle of degradation, and the kahalist system of government, namely that by irresponsible oligarchy, and to admire every individual jew either born inside the country or picked for importation there into . . ." (June 11, 1957). This piece was not signed or pseudonym indicated, but it is clear that it is Pound. These statements are only a handful of examples from The New Times and Edge, but they demonstrate, with a few exceptions, that in the majority of correspondence to Stock, Pound attacked Jews, who were usurers or in the Kahal.

      Pound was very aware that his actions had consequences, but he maintained that his radio speeches were not treasonous. Pound told Denis Goacher about his broadcasts: "BUT at news of Pearl Harbor I was TOLD I cd/ not broadcast 'or at least NOT in my own name' to which I replied: 'In my own name and with my own VOICE.' Which was the whole point/ no sneak" (June 22, 1954). Pound is referring to the fact that after Pearl Harbor, when he started his broadcasts again in January, he made sure that he was introduced with the following lines: "Rome Radio, acting in accordance with the fascist policy of intellectual freedom and free expression of opinion by those who are qualified to hold it, has offered Dr. Ezra Pound the use of the microphone twice a week. It is understood that he will not be asked to say anything whatsoever that goes against his conscience, or anything incompatible with his duties as a citizen of the United States of America"(Doob xiii). However, in a letter to a letter to Ingrid Davies, he advised her, "SELECT individuals, and probably keep yr/ trap MORE shut than grampaw' DID, gorilla cage only place I cdn't open it too much" (January 19, 1955). These lines may show some regret for his action, yet Pound did keep a sense of humor about his situation in St. Elizabeths. In a letter to Davies, he writes, "Better a bughouse in the U.S. than a palace in Moscow or a place in Churchill's cabinet" (May 10, 1955). And he also tells Davies about Roosevelt: "Of course if Ez is nutz, it is time to ask what infamy and imbecility on part of Roose druv. him nuts" (December 30, 1955). His correspondence from the Harry Ransom Center shows a man who still wanted to get his message out to the world. Perhaps Pound best expressed the way he wanted to be remembered in a letter dated October 9, 1953 to Goacher. Pound wrote the following lines for his own epitaph:

I strove with all, for ALL were worth my strife.
    Nature I LOATHED , and, next to nature, art.

I chilled both feet on the thin ice of life,
    It BROKE,
                And I emit one final . ."

If Pound were serious about his epitaph, it would certainly be justified since he believed that that no one understood that he was trying to educate the world about economics and the ongoing war against usury.

      Pound's attorneys, Thurman Arnold and William D. Rogers, filed the motion for the dismissal of the treason indictment on April 14, 1958. A motion for a dismissal of Pound's indictment for treason was heard on April 18, 1958. In a letter to Noel Stock from J. Walter Yeagley, Assistant Attorney General, Internal Securities Division, Yeagley describes the motion: "The motion was based in part on the opinion of Dr. Winfred Overholser, Superintendent of St. Elizabeths Hospital, that Pound was suffering from a permanent and incurable paranoid condition such that he could not stand trial at that time or in the future" (October 24, 1966). Chief Judge Bolitha J. Laws presided over the hearing and based on the medical opinion, she dismissed the indictment of treason and found that Pound was not dangerously insane. Stock notes about the hearing: "Judge Laws announced that in view of the evidence about Pound's mental condition and the willingness of the government to see the matter at an end, she hereby dismissed the indictment"(Stock 447). Pound was officially discharged on May 7, 1958; he was seventy-two years old. Pound spent some time in his old town of Wyncote before he left for Italy on June 30, 1958. However, Pound did not think too much about his mistakes. When he arrived in Naples, on the way to Genoa on July 9th, Pound greeted a crowd of reporters with a Fascist salute.


 

 


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